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A. Philip RandolphMarch for Jobs and Freedom1941 Ban on discrimination in Federal Hiring
Affirmative Action Policy - Executive Orders and key Supreme Court rulings
American Indian Movement - 1968
Bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church - Birmingham, AL-1963
Cesar Chavez & Dolores Huerta - National Farm Workers Association - Chicano Movement
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) - Freedom Rides
Executive Order 9980 - 1948 - Desegregation of the Armed Services
Freedom Summer – 1964 - Disappearance of Schwerner, Chaney and Goodman
Jackie Robinson integrates professional baseball - 1947
John Lewis - Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Ku Klux Klan & Lynching
MLK’s arrest in Birmingham - Letter From Birmingham City Jail - “Children’s Crusade” – Birmingham, AL - 1963
Murder of NAACP field secretary Medgar Evers
Nation of Islam
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
School Busing Upheld by Supreme Court - Boston Busing Crisis – 1970s
Sit-in at the Woolworth Lunch Counter- Greensboro, NC - Sit-In Movement -1960
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Stokely Carmichael & “Black Power”
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Stokely Carmichael & “Black Power”
STOKELY CARMICHAEL: "Black Power" Speech
Stokely Carmichael was born on June 29, 1941 in Port of Spain, Trinidad. His father moved him and the rest of his family to America at the age of two years old. Carmichael grew up in the Harlem area of New York and was well known in the area and was popular especially with the white upperclass children in New York. Unlike most African-American kids during this time period, he tended to fit in socially. After Harlem his family moved into the Bronx where he attended the local high school known at the time as the Bronx High School of Science.This was impressive for Carmichael because it already showed a successful accomplishment portrayed by himself that helped later act as an impetus for achieveing more as a growing activist. Carmichael first became interested in researching the civil rights movement through following the work of Bayard Rustin who was an activist. He participated in many organization efforts of African-Americans that helped support the ideas of Rustin. After high school Stokely continued to pursue his research efforts on the Civil Rights Movement actively by attending college at Howard University.
Stokely Carmichael was a man growing up during a time where African Amercians were deprived and forced to hide there personal identities while not being allowed to have equal rights as the "white man" in America. After doing his research at Howard University, Carmichael actively participated in many committees and organizations that helped protest the American view of African Americans at the time. Carmichael right after graduating participated in the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee which acknowledged Martin Luther King Jr.'s values on how to handle the situation through a nonviolent yet no too passive ideal. In 1961 Carmichael joined the Freedom Riders where he and many African Americans walked across the South to stop segregation and refuse the rules given to them by the white man. Along these walks and protests Carmichael was arrested up to 27 times showing a deep passion for what he believed in even if it meant risking his life for the freedom and allowance of integration for the future of African Americans. One of his arrests were in Jackson, Mississippi where he was in jail for 49 days until he was finally released. This acted as an impetus for him to pursue his marches and protests as soon as he got out of jail. One of the most important marches Carmichael went on was the March Against Fear and on this march was many other African American leaders at the time including Martin Luther King and Floyd McKissick. While passing through Greenbrook, Mississippi he was once again arrested by the police and was released in the middle of June. On the same release date, June 16th, Carmichael delivered a powerful speech kown today to be called "Black Power". Stokely later joined the Black Panther Party now opposing the ideologies of Martin Luther King about a nonviolent approach. Carmichael later moved with his family back to West Africa where he wrote many books including Stoekly Speaks: Black Power to Pan-Africanism.
"Black Power" Speech:
On June 16th, 1966 Stokely Carmichael delivered a very famous and inspirational speech to all the people in Greenwood, Mississippi. The purpose of his speech was to unite all the African American people together and to fight the power together. He called for blacks to start taking this into their own hands to do things such as organizing groups and committees to stand up against the unequal rights given o them and segregation. Carmichael powerfully sent out a message to reach down into their heritage to revolt against the American values. He urged the fact that they all had an importance in America together and not just the white men. After his speech most blacks did what the oppostie of what he though. The NAACP and other organizatons disagreed with what he was saying and thought of it as separation from the white men and they accused Carichael of saying that blacks should be superior to the white man. But at this time this was not the goal for African Americans. Their real goal was to unite everyone together, blacks and whites. This speech also rejected the ways of Martin Luther King and instead he tried to teach African Americans to be more aggressive and active and that is the only solution to their freedom of rights. The impact of the speech changed the minds of blacks a lot. Organizations began to uprise and protest against the American value. But there were also major negative impacts. Surprisingly the African Americans found it as almost an insult to demean the ways of such a great black leader Martin Luther King Jr. Many well known organizations found the speech to be giving the wrong message on how to handle their situation. Much did not significantly change after the speech except for the increasing amount of chaos that erupted in America as blacks began to get more violent in order to get their way. Fights broke out where many African Americans were thrown in jail. Although his speech caused few problems in the future, it was still one of the first acts by an African American to unite blacks together to form a community and fight for their equal rights.
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