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Pages and Files
A. Philip RandolphMarch for Jobs and Freedom1941 Ban on discrimination in Federal Hiring
Affirmative Action Policy - Executive Orders and key Supreme Court rulings
American Indian Movement - 1968
Bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church - Birmingham, AL-1963
Cesar Chavez & Dolores Huerta - National Farm Workers Association - Chicano Movement
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) - Freedom Rides
Executive Order 9980 - 1948 - Desegregation of the Armed Services
Freedom Summer – 1964 - Disappearance of Schwerner, Chaney and Goodman
Jackie Robinson integrates professional baseball - 1947
John Lewis - Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Ku Klux Klan & Lynching
MLK’s arrest in Birmingham - Letter From Birmingham City Jail - “Children’s Crusade” – Birmingham, AL - 1963
Murder of NAACP field secretary Medgar Evers
Nation of Islam
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
School Busing Upheld by Supreme Court - Boston Busing Crisis – 1970s
Sit-in at the Woolworth Lunch Counter- Greensboro, NC - Sit-In Movement -1960
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Stokely Carmichael & “Black Power”
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The Stonewall Riots of 1969 - Gay Rights Movement - Don’t Ask –Don’t Tell Policy
Stonewall Riots of 1969
June 28th, 1969
The Stonewall in was typical for a gay bar in New York City in that it was run by the mafia and regularly raided by the police, it was different, however, in that when it was raided on June 28th, 1969, its customers fought back. It is unclear how the riot began but once it did it quickly spread, attracting support from dozens of blocks arround. When the police attempted to break up the riot with the TPF (Tactical Patrol Force), they were simply taunted by the unrelenting numbers of gay rights supporters. The outcome of the riot required many people to be hospitalized, mostly civilians, but also prompted the formation of one of the first gay rights groups, the Gay Liberation Front, which was quickly immitated in countries arround the world.
Gay Rights Movement
Gay Rights didn't take off in America until the Stonewall riots when the issue became greatly more public, at that point gay sex was still illegal not to mention marriage and public opinion did not look very kindly on homosexuality. In 1993 Hawaii became the first state to repeal bans on gay marriage, a choice which is still not looked well upon by much of America, and it wasnt untill 2003 that the supreme court ruled against anti-sodomy laws which still stood in 14 states. Other battles for gay rights were won in 1998 when President Clinton signed exectutive order 13087 which banned the government from discriminating on the basis of sexual orientation and in 2004 when Massachusetts became the first state to fully legalize gay marriage.
Don't Ask, Don't Tell
In 1993 president Clinton brought into effect the U.S. Army's Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy which meant that millitary superiors were forbiden from investigating the sexual orientation of people serving in the armed forces but those people were frobidden from engaging in homosexual relationships or disclosing their gay status which was grounds for dismissal from the millitary. In March 2010 the pentagon released new policies which altered the execution of Don't Ask, Don't Tell, making it more difficult for people to be banned from the millitary through this policy.
President Bill Clinton
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