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Pages and Files
A. Philip RandolphMarch for Jobs and Freedom1941 Ban on discrimination in Federal Hiring
Affirmative Action Policy - Executive Orders and key Supreme Court rulings
American Indian Movement - 1968
Bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church - Birmingham, AL-1963
Cesar Chavez & Dolores Huerta - National Farm Workers Association - Chicano Movement
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) - Freedom Rides
Executive Order 9980 - 1948 - Desegregation of the Armed Services
Freedom Summer – 1964 - Disappearance of Schwerner, Chaney and Goodman
Jackie Robinson integrates professional baseball - 1947
John Lewis - Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Ku Klux Klan & Lynching
MLK’s arrest in Birmingham - Letter From Birmingham City Jail - “Children’s Crusade” – Birmingham, AL - 1963
Murder of NAACP field secretary Medgar Evers
Nation of Islam
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
School Busing Upheld by Supreme Court - Boston Busing Crisis – 1970s
Sit-in at the Woolworth Lunch Counter- Greensboro, NC - Sit-In Movement -1960
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Stokely Carmichael & “Black Power”
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Thurgood MarshallThe NAACP Legal Defense Fund
THURGOOD MARSHALL AND THE NAACP LEGAL DEFENSE FUND
Thurgood Marshall was the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court. He was interested in the constitution and law as a kid, and he became a successful lawyer before being appointed to the Supreme Court.
The NAACP Legal Defense Fund is a branch that is dedicated to providing legal assistance to poor African Americans.
Thurgood Marshall was born in Baltimore, Maryland in July, 1908. He was nominated to the Supreme Court in 1967. In 1993 he died of heart failure and he is now buried in Arlington Cemetery.
The Legal Defense Fund was founded by Thurgood Marshall in 1957 and has offices in New York and Washington D.C
John F Kennedy appointed Thurgood Marshall to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit
Lyndon B. Johnson appointed Marshall to the Supreme Court
John Payton is the current president of the Legal Defense Fund
Thurgood Marshall was constantly fighting for the rights of oppressed African Americans. He supported the rights of immigrants and wanted to limit government intrusion. As a lawyer, before being appointed to the Supreme Court, most of his cases required him to fight for the rights of Åfrican Americans, and many were taken to the Supreme Court.
Goals and Methods:
The Legal Defense Fund's primary goal is to provide assistance to poor African Americans. They want to achieve racial justice and fulfill the promise of equality for all Americans. There are four branches or projects- the economic justice project attacks economic barriers through law suits and public education, the education project fights to provide high quality schooling for all Americans, the voter protection project advocates for equal participation in democracy, and the criminal justice project attacks racism in the justice system.
One of Marshall's most well known and important cases was the Brown vs. Board of Education case in which segregation in school systems was declared illegal. It is because of Thurgood Marshall that schools are no longer separated by race. Because African American students are able to get an equal education, they are able to have better opportunities than they would have in a segregated school system. Also, Marshall strongly promoted affirmative action as a Supreme Court Justice, so he can take some credit for the end of discrimination.
Thurgood Marshall entering the Supreme Court to fight for an African American girl's right to attend the University of Alabama
The Legal Defense Fund has been providing great aid to the African American community since it was first founded. It has been successful in helping many African Americans win in court cases, and it has come a long way in improving the rights of African Americans. Although the equality they are striving for has not yet been reached, they continue to work hard, and are a great help in doing all they can right now.
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