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Pages and Files
A. Philip RandolphMarch for Jobs and Freedom1941 Ban on discrimination in Federal Hiring
Affirmative Action Policy - Executive Orders and key Supreme Court rulings
American Indian Movement - 1968
Bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church - Birmingham, AL-1963
Cesar Chavez & Dolores Huerta - National Farm Workers Association - Chicano Movement
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) - Freedom Rides
Executive Order 9980 - 1948 - Desegregation of the Armed Services
Freedom Summer – 1964 - Disappearance of Schwerner, Chaney and Goodman
Jackie Robinson integrates professional baseball - 1947
John Lewis - Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Ku Klux Klan & Lynching
MLK’s arrest in Birmingham - Letter From Birmingham City Jail - “Children’s Crusade” – Birmingham, AL - 1963
Murder of NAACP field secretary Medgar Evers
Nation of Islam
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
School Busing Upheld by Supreme Court - Boston Busing Crisis – 1970s
Sit-in at the Woolworth Lunch Counter- Greensboro, NC - Sit-In Movement -1960
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Stokely Carmichael & “Black Power”
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White CitizensCouncilsSouthern Manifesto
White Citizens Council
Overview and goals:
In response to the Brown vs. Board decision and the Regional Council of Negroe Leadership (RCNL) formed in the all-black community, Mount Bayou, Mississippi, the White Citizens Council (WCC) was formed by Robert Patterson only forty miles away in Indianola, Mississippi. Refferring to themselves as the Citizens Council of America, the WCC was a group originally formed in July of 1956 to oppose the racial desegregation of the south. This being not only a concern of citizens of Indianola, but many of the southern whites, the WCC spread throughout the deep south, and many of its members being white collar citizens who ran the towns they were from.
Robert "tut" Patterson, founder of the WCC.
Unlike other white surpremisist groups at the time, such as the Klu Klux Klan, the original White Citizens Council's way of action was not through terrorism and violent acts, but rather through economic depression of people against segregation. However, as the WCC expanded, people involved with the KKK also became involved with the WCC. The White Citizens Council became an underground force of the Klu Klux Klan, and instead of members disguising there crimes with a white robe and pointed hood, they could publicly enforce segregation (with or without violence) in there buttoned down suites.
Long term impact:
Although much of the things the WCC had eventually died out by the late 1960's, in1985 the group was reestablished by Gordon Baum in St. Louis. Based on the same anti-sematic ideals, the group now called the Council of Conservatives Citizens continues to spread fear among their enemies, mainly non-whites.
A video of Gordon Baum's veiw of his group CC of C:
Brown vs. Board of Education
Also in response to the desegregation passed in the Brown vs. Board of Education case, 19 senators and 82 members from the House including Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana. Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia, sent a written document oppossing public racial integration. Written in Febuary and March of 1956, the document expressed the concerns of southern whites in an integrated society. The original version was written by South Carolina's Senator Strom Thurmond, but the revise final draft was mainly written by Georgia's Senator Richard Russell. The final draft not only opposed the new laws, but accussed the supreme court for abusing its power.
Long term impact:
Althought this was not the first massive colaboration against desegregation, the Southern Manifesto was the first that had a foundation on the consitution, rather than just a bias against colored peoples. Attacking the Supreme court's decision for desegregation in public schools, the south was fighting to conserve the previous school sysstems they had had since the Plessy vs. Ferguson case in 1896.
Brown vs. Board of education
Plessy vs. Ferguson
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